Origin and Distribution of Coffee, Botanical Characteristics of Coffee, propagation of coffee, coffee processing, use of coffee
About 50 species of coffee are known in the world. Among these, its three species are important from the commercial point of view.
C. arabica – Arabian coffee
C. libirica – Liberian Coffee
C. roubsta – kanga coffee
Origin and Distribution of Coffee
Coffee originated in the district of Kaffa in western Abyssinia. For the first time in Ethiopia (800A.D.) seeing its stimulating effect on sheep, the inhabitants of the place began to use the coffee fruit as an intoxicant, from where it reached Aden in the 15th century and spread throughout Arabia. Gone. After this it reached Europe in 1573, Britain and India in 1700. Today in the field of coffee production, Brazil is first and Colombia is second. Today coffee is cultivated in countries like Brazil, Angola, Colombia, Indonesia, Kenya, Venezuela, Mexico, Guatemala, Sri Lanka, India, Uganda, West Indies etc.
The state of Karnataka is the largest producer of coffee in India. Apart from this, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh are also coffee producing states.
Botanical Characteristics of Coffee
Coffee plant is an evergreen shrub. Whose height is 5-10 m. By pruning the plant, its height is limited by increasing its branching. Its column is vertically branched and woody on which simple leaves are arranged oppositely. Leaves are shiny, leathery interpetiolar. Flowers are white, aromatic, star-shaped, bisexual, are found in dense orbital clusters.
propagation of coffee
Coffee is usually propagated by seeds. Cuttings and grafting methods are also used for its propagation. The seedlings are raised in the nursery. The coffee seedlings of about six months are transferred to the fields during the rainy season.
Shady, terraced, sloping mountainous places are suitable for coffee cultivation. In these gardens, shade trees are planted in between for shade. The height of the coffee plant is restricted to 1-2 m by frequent pruning. After three to four years, fruits start coming in April, which continues for 40-50 years. When the fruits are ripe, they are collected in the month of December.
The processing of coffee is possible in the following two ways
1. Dry method
In this method, after drying the coffee fruits in the sun, the seeds are separated from the fruit by crushing them or with the help of hulling machines. The dried seeds after roasting and powdering are packaged in the form of coffee.
2. Wet method
In this method, ripe fruits are put in a pulping machine and run, so that their pulp is separated from the seeds. Wash it with water and separate the seeds. It is kept in water to remove the active thin membranous covering present on the seeds. This covering is separated from the seeds by fermentation. Now the seeds are polished. The fermentation process develops a flavor in the coffee beans. These seeds are dried and roasted and made into powder and packed.
Chemical Characteristics of Coffee
The taste, color and aroma of coffee are due to the chemical substances present in it (essence oil, kafiol 10-13%). Coffee contains an alkaloid called caffeine (1-2%), which is responsible for its stimulating and refreshing properties. Apart from this, protein (11.0%), cellulose (10-14%) and sugar (0.43%) are present in coffee.
use of coffee
- Coffee is mainly used as a beverage. It is a stimulating beverage. Which is drunk mixed with sugar, milk, chicory or malted wheat powder.
- The wood of the coffee plant is used for making sticks, frames, kills and boxes etc.
- Coffee seeds are used in the manufacture of a special type of plastic called phacolite.
- Coffee contains a toxic chemical substance called Caffcotoxin. The harmful effects of excessive consumption of coffee are due to this chemical. 5. Coffee is also used as a diuretic.